Stars and constellations
Auriga, the Charioteer, is almost overhead and the leading star Capella is a yellowish star at a distance of 45 light-years. The Milky Way looks particularly rich as it flows from Perseus, through Auriga and towards Taurus, the Bull. Aldebaran is the brightest star in Taurus and is an orange giant at a distance of 65 light-years from us; it is bloated, orange giant star nearing the end of its life. Following a line from Orion's Belt down to the southeast horizon will lead you to Sirius, the brightest star in the entire sky. The brightness is not a true indication of true luminosity; Sirius is just under 9 light-years from us and although it is somewhat more powerful than the Sun, it is far less luminous than Rigel. Rising in the east is the Sickle-pattern of stars marking the head of Leo, the Lion.
Jan 02 --- Last quarter moon
Jan 02 --- Moon at apogee (furthest from Earth); 251,206 miles (404,277 km).
Jan 02 --- Earth at perihelion (closest to Sun); 91.4 million miles (147 million km)
Jan 04 --- Quadrantid meteor shower peak
Jan 05 --- Pluto conjunction with Sun
Jan 07 --- Crescent moon near Venus and Saturn in morning sky.
Jan 09 --- Venus and Saturn conjunction (about 5 arcminutes apart; very close!)
Jan 10 --- New moon
Jan 10 --- Moon and Mercury conjunction (very difficult to observe!; SW horizon around 4.40pm)
Jan 14 --- Mercury inferior conjunction
Jan 15 --- Moon at perigee (closest to Earth); 229,391 miles (369,169 km)
Jan 16 --- First quarter moon
Jan 17 --- Comet Catalina closest to Earth (108 million km).
Jan 19 --- Gibbous moon in the Hyades star cluster
Jan 24 --- Full moon
Jan 27 --- Moon and Jupiter less than 2 degrees apart.
Jan 27 --- Asteroid 115 Thyra at opposition (mag. +9.9, in constellation Cancer)
Jan 30 --- Moon at apogee (furthest from Earth); 251,378 miles (404,553 km).